This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of performing a lateral extra-articular tenodesis (LET) with a modified Lemaire technique (MLT) in conjunction with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in children and adolescents at increased risk for failed ACLR.
A consecutive series of patients =19 years who underwent simultaneous ACLR and LET with minimum two-year follow-up data were reviewed. Patients were indicated for LET when one or more of the following risk factors were present: participant in high-risk competitive sport such as football, lacrosse, soccer or basketball, grade 3 pivot shift, hyperlaxity (Beighton score > 6), recurvatum, revision ACLR, contralateral ACLR, or chronic ACL insufficiency. ACLR was performed using either full-thickness quadriceps tendon (QUAD) for skeletally immature patients or bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) autograft for skeletally mature patients. All-epiphyseal (AE) or complete transphyseal (CT) techniques were used depending on patients’ skeletal maturity. At a minimum two-year follow-up, patient-reported outcome measures included Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), Pediatric International Knee Documentation Committee (Pedi-IKDC), and the HSS Functional Activity Brief Scale (HSS Pedi-FABS) scores. Return-to-sport (RTS) data and second surgeries were also obtained.
Sixty-three consecutive patients (mean age 15.17 ±1.73 years, range 11-19 years, 62% female) were analyzed. Ten patients (16%) were revision ACLR procedures. Seven (11%) patients underwent AE and 54 (89%) underwent CT ACLR. Forty-two (69%) cases employed a QUAD autograft, while 19 (31%) utilized a BTB autograft. All patients underwent a LET with a MLT and 2 patients underwent simultaneous implant mediated guided growth with a plate for structural genu valgum. At two-year follow-up, mean SANE score was 94, median Pedi-IKDC score was 91, and median HSS-Pedi Fabs score was 27. RTS rate was 91.8%. Eight patients had subsequent surgical procedures, including two hardware removal procedures for hemiepiphysiodesis, two contralateral ACLR, two meniscus surgeries, one lysis of adhesions, and one revision ACLR for graft re-rupture.
The findings suggest that concomitant LET and ACLR in adolescent patients with risk factors for failed ACLR is associated with favorable patient-reported outcomes, high return to sports participation, and low ACL re-rupture rate at two years follow-up.