History of the IAA

Scroll down or click on a year below to explore the history of the IAA.

1951 | 1957 | 1973 | 1974 | 1975 | 1976 | 1977 | 1978 | 1979 | 1980 | 1981 | 1982 | 1983 | 1984 | 1985 | 1987 | 1989 | 1991 | 1993 | 1995

  • 1951

    At the Fifth SICOT Conference held in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1951, there were several projects presented with color pictures obtained through the arthroscope.

  • 1957

    In 1957, the 7th SICOT Congress was held in Barcelona and Masaki Watanabe presented, for the first time, a work on arthroscopy at an international congress held outside of Japan. It was a color film titled “Arthroscopy”.

    He then visited different Hospitals in Europe showing this work.

    Finally in November, he traveled to the US. The 2nd of November, in Philadelphia, he participated in the Joint Meeting of the Philadelphia Orthopaedic Club and the New York Medical Academy. The speakers were:

    • Colonna
    • Nicolson
    • DePalma

    Masaki Watanabe presented the aforementioned film “Arthroscopy”. From the 17th of that month, he visited the Mayo Clinic, where he met with several colleagues: Polley and Bickel. On the 19th, he returned to present the film at St Mary’s Hospital. He then moved to Los Angeles and met David Kling of Boyer-Kling Institute

    He gave the opinion that the development of Arthroscopy had been completed in 4 phases:

    1st. 1920-1959

    A few publications during the 20s
    During the 30s an extensive work was carried out in Japan:
    Surgical Techniques
    Details of Anatomy
    The US also took part in this work

    2nd. 1960-1969 Practical application of arthroscopy
    1962: 1st arthroscopic meniscectomy. A 17-Year-old boy who was playing basketball incurred a distortion of the knee, causing a pedunculated rupture of the medial meniscus. The peduncle was cut and extracted. The boy returned home walking on the same day and 6 weeks later he returned to playing basketball
    1964: 1st Joint Meeting of the American and Japanese Orthopaedic Associations held in Japan, Masaki Watanabe presented the arthroscope No. 21 and a film in 16mm and color, which included the 1st arthroscopic partial meniscectomy carried out by him in 1962. The work was criticized by a surgeon at the Hospital for Joint Diseases in New York and by Professor Mizumo of the Osaka University. The film didn’t receive the praise expected of it either.
    In July Robert W. Jackson traveled with the winter sports team from Canada to Japan for the purposes of:
    1) Studying tissue culture techniques and, in addition
    2) At the request of Ian McNab, who had been experimenting with a pediatric cystoscope to examine the inside of the knee; to meet and visit Masaki Watanabe who was the one who had presented an arthroscopy project in Barcelona. He found him at the Tokyo Teishin Hospital, an institution for the care of postal workers and their relatives. The assistants of Masaki Watanabe were Takeda and Hiroshi Ikeuchi. The latter spoke English, as he had stayed for 1 year in the US and, therefore, acted as an interpreter.
    He learnt surgical arthroscopic techniques.
    1965: He returned to Toronto, to the Toronto General Hospital, with the Arthroscope Watanabe No. 21 and a camera (half-frame camera)
    1966: Isao Abe carried out a research fellowship with Robert W. Jackson and they shared training on arthroscopy and tissue culture. They performed 70 arthroscopies together.
    At that time, those performing arthroscopy outside Japan were: Jason, rheumatologist from the UK, Dixon, rheumatologist from the UK and Robles Gil, rheumatologist from Mexico
    1967: 1st presentation of 6min in length, conducted by Robert W. Jackson at the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation held in Atlanta. It wasn’t convincing.
    2nd presentation in Toronto during the Founding Meeting of the Association of Academic Surgeons. It achieved more success but few attendees believed in the effectiveness of the technique.
    From that year (1967) Robert W Jackson started communicating with orthopaedic surgeons who were interested in the topic: S Ward Casscells, Jack McGinty, John Joyce III, David Drez
    1968: In May of 1968, during the course of the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons held in the United States, the first course of arthroscopy training was done by Robert W. Jackson.
    He made 16mm film in color using a Beaulieu camera adapted to the arthroscope and began the use of a black and white TV screen during surgery
    1969: Robert W. Jackson began working with Michael Burman (New York City) (part of the instruments used to perform arthroscopy are currently in the museum of the Hospital for Joint Diseases)
    The following began the practice of arthroscopy: Dick O’Connor, in Europe: Henri Dorfman, Michele Aignan, Harold Eikelaar, Jan Gillquist, Hans-Rudolf Henche. The latter followed the teachings of Eugen Bircher and employed gas to loosen up the articular cavity
    3rd. 1970-1978 International dissemination
    Arthroscopy of the knee with the No. 21 arthroscope began to be introduced in the US, Canada, France, the UK and other countries
    1970: In Sydney, Australia, the Combined Meeting of the Orthopaedic Associations of the English-Speaking World was held: Robert W. Jackson presented a paper on his experiences with arthroscopy. After the congress, himself, S Ward Casscells and George Schonholtz traveled to Japan to visit Masaki Watanabe
    At that time, the following people practiced arthroscopy: Lanny L Johnson , Kenneth DeHaven and Ralph Lidge
    Later, the Selfoscope was designed (Olympus Optical Company)
    1971-2: publications begin to appear in the JBJS: S Ward Casscells, Isao Abe…
    4th: 1979-… Consolidation

    William McAusland, president of the North American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons suggested to S Ward Casscells to organize courses for the teaching of arthroscopy

  • 1973

    On the 19th of May 1973, as a consequence of the combined efforts of Robert W. Jackson, Samuel Ward Casscells, Michael Harty & John Joyce III, the first course in arthroscopy was held in Philadelphia. It took place during the course of the1973 Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS). The University of Pennsylvania was responsible for setting up the Seminar. It lasted a day and included cadaver training. Attendees were able to see the arthroscopy being performed on a black and white TV screen, from the conference room

    Among the 75 participants, it is worth pointing out:

    Chairman Robert W. Jackson
    Faculty Samuel Ward Casscells
    Faculty Michael Harty
    Faculty Edgar Ralston
    Faculty Paul Lotke
    Faculty Wallace Miller
    Organizer John Joyce III
    Participant Lanny L Johnson
    Participant Gary Poehling
    Participant Richard O’Connor
    Participant Harold Eikelaar

    Also, that year Michael Harty and John Joyce III suggested to Robert W. Jackson and Samuel Ward Casscells the setting up of an international society of arthroscopy. They decided to meet when it was being held at the Second Seminar of arthroscopy in the year 1974

  • 1974

    The following year the Second Seminar was held. It was during the 26 and 27 of April 1974, in Philadelphia. There were approximately 200 participants, the sponsors of the event were again the University of Pennsylvania, the Wolf Company and the Storz Company. A closed-circuit TV in black and white was set up, to retransmit the arthroscopic examination of a cadaver knee conducted by Masaki Watanabe

    The faculty were

    • Masaki Watanabe
    • Lanny L Johnson
    • Robert Freiberger (Radiologist from the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York)
    • Edgar Ralston
    • Michael Harty
    • Paul Lotke
    • James Nixon
    • John Joyce III

    After completing the Second Course, on the 28th of April 1974, the meeting that concluded with the foundation of the International Arthroscopy Association (IAA) was held. The agenda of the meeting was attended by:

    • Isao Abe (Tokyo, Japan)
    • Alan Bass (Canada)
    • Michele Aignan (Paris, France)
    • Richard O’Connor (USA)
    • Kenneth DeHaven (USA)
    • Robert Bechtol (USA)
    • Serge Parisien (New York, USA)

    The Founding President was Masaki Watanabe, there were 80 founding members and it included 3 chapters: American, European, and Asian

    Minutes of the Inaugural Meeting of the IAA - April 28, 1974

    IAA Founding Board of Directors

    Some of the founding members

    • Edgar Ralston
    • Michael Harty
    • Paul Lotke
    • James Nixon
    • Isao Abe
    • Robert Bechtol
    • Serge Parisien
    • James Guhl
    • Robert Metcalf
    • Dinesh Patel
    • James Smith
    • Robert Stone
    • Robert Eilert
    • John Marshall

    Morgan, Lewis & Bockius (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) legalized and made the statutes of the IAA

    Publication of the review carried out by David J dandy regarding the arthroscopies performed by Robert W Jackson

  • 1975

    The first Sponsored Academic Course in Boston was held, and the Chairman was Jack McGinty.

    The 1st Congress (July 10th 1975) was held in conjunction with the SICOT Congress in Copenhagen and was approved on behalf of the IAA as well as the logo designed by Robert Bechtol that immortalizes the Watanabe 21arthroscope, the tree that represents orthopedics and the 2 hemispheres of the earth globe

    It was agreed that the Congress would be conducted every 3 years to coincide with the SICOT Congress

    There was a large number of participants from Japan.

    Harold Eikelaar presented his Doctoral Thesis on arthroscopy at the University of Groningen (Netherlands)

  • 1976

    Richard O’Connor and the Wolf Company developed and performed the surgical arthroscope and corresponding equipment to work with it.

  • 1977

    On the 31st of August 1977 the official 1st Meeting of the North American Chapter of the IAA was held in Denver (Colorado), at the Stouffer’s Denver Inn Hotel.

    Scientific Program

    Organizer Robert Eilert
    Lecturers Dinesh Patel (Boston)
    Michael Harty (Philadelphia)
    James Nixon (Philadelphia)
    Ralph Lidge (Arlington Heights)
    James Guhl (Milwaukee)
    Lawrence Crane (Portland)
    C C Carruthers (Ottawa)
    James Glick (San Francisco)
    Jerome Lawrence (Northport)
    Terry Whipple (Durham)
    Gary Poehling (Winston-Salem)
    Douglas Jackson (Long Beach)
    Robert Carson (Salt Lake City)
    Lanny Johnson (East Lansing)

  • 1978

    The 2nd International Congress of the IAA was held in October 1978 in Kyoto, Japan. In 4 years they got 280 members from 10 different countries.

    1978 Board of Directors

  • 1979

    May: The 2nd Meeting of the North American Chapter of the IAA was held in Toronto, Canada chaired by Robert W Jackson

    S Ward Casscells (Wilmington, Delaware) left the Secretariat and was succeeded by Alan Bass (Hamilton, Ontario, Canada)

    December: Executive Committee meeting in Miami, Florida and courses were planned, directed by John McGinty, Kenneth DeHaven y Richard O’Connor

  • 1980

    October: The Annual Course of the North American Chapter of the IAA was held at the Fairmount Hotel in Philadelphia, the Chairman was John Joyce III and they chose to work with a professional secretariat: Thomas Nelson and Associates; it lasted only a short time because the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons hired them and they were substituted by Sanford Hill and Associates. They also set up a committee of inquiry led by Terry Whipple and sponsored by the contributions of members of the Association and by the economic contribution of the exhibitors

    November: Richard O’Connor died and was substituted in his post by Ralph Lidge (Arlington, Heights). In his memory an award was created in his honor, the economic prize was donated by the Wolf Company

    December: 3-5 1st. Education Course of the IAA in Long Beach, California. It was dedicated to Richard O’Connor. The Chairman was Douglas W Jackson and the President of the IAA, Robert W Jackson spoke on: “History and Future of the IAA”

  • 1981

    April: 2nd Education Course of the IAA in Bermuda, at the Southhampton Princess Hotel. There were 2 Chairmen S Ward Casscells and John B McGinty. The local President was Colin Couper.

    The vacancy in the Education Committee left by Richard O’Connor was occupied by David J Dandy (UK)

    June: There was a meeting in Chicago that served to organize 2 new annual courses for Continuing Education at the IAA. One out of the US and another in the US under the auspices of the American Chapter

    August: the 3rd International Congress of the IAA was celebrated in Rio de Janeiro. The presentations had changed; there was more emphasis on arthroscopic surgery and arthroscopy of other joints. There were prizes for the best submitted works and the winners were: Terry Whipple, James Glick and Ogilvie Harris.

    1981 Board of Directors

    At the end of the Congress the Board of Directors of the North American Chapter of the IAA met and decided to secede, creating the Arthroscopy Association of North America (AANA)

  • 1982

    The Arthroscopy Association of North America (AANA) was founded. Read AANA's historical perspective of the creation and development of the IAA.

  • 1983

    In May of that year a Course was held for the IAA in Toronto. There was a Board of Directors meeting and they addressed the issue of the relationship between the Board and the recently created AANA, agreeing that the latter should remain independent but not without collaborations when needed and with an economic agreement.

    The Publication Committee stressed the increase of international communications and was formed in the following way

    Chairman S Ward Casscells
    John Joyce III
    Kenneth DeHaven
    Jan Gillquist
    Henri Dorfmann
    Robert W Carson
    Advisor Robert Metcalf

  • 1984

    The 4th Congress of the IAA was held in London in 1984.

    1984 Board of Directors

    The same year, 1984, Robert Metcalf transferred all the work he had done to create a specific magazine on Arthroscopy. He wanted to be the Editor and Publicist. But by declining to continue working for the project, the situation changed and S Ward Casscells became the leader of the project, and after several considerations, he contacted the Editorial Raven Press in New York. A Board of Associate Editors was created and it was formed by 24 North American members and 14 International members: European, South American, Asian and Australian, hoping to increase other members interested in arthroscopy, from other parts of the world.

  • 1985

    The first issue of “Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery” appeared in March of 1985.

    The members of Raven Press that were involved in the project were

    President Alan Edelson
    Patricia Miller
    Janis Hoagland

    First Board of Directors for “Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery”

  • 1987

    The 5th Congress of the IAA was held in Sydney in 1987.

    1987 Board of Directors

  • 1989

    The 6th Congress was held in Rome. In 1989. The Chairman of the program of the Congress was Robert W. Jackson.

    1989 Board of Directors

  • 1991

    The 7th one was held in Toronto in 1991.

    1991 Board of Directors

  • 1993

    The 8th one was held in 1993. It was the Combined Congress IAA/ISK. It took place from the 25th to the 30th of June in the Falconer Center of Copenhagen, Denmark.

    1993 Board of Directors

    In 1994 the IAA had 1016 members

  • 1995

    The 9th and last Congress of the IAA was held in Hong Kong in 1995. It was the 1995 IAA/ISK Combined Congress.

    1995 Program Committee

    That year the International Arthroscopy Association was dissolved and the International Society of Arthroscopy, Knee Surgery, and Orthopaedic Sports Medicine (ISAKOS) was founded, with its first President Peter Fowler.

    Original ISAKOS Board of Directors

  • References

    1) R Cugat & M Garcia-Balletbó
    2) Casscells SW. A New Journal: Arthroscopy. Arthroscopy 1985. 1(1): 1
    3) Metcalf RW. A Decade of Arthroscopic Surgery: AANA. Presidential Address. Arthroscopy 1985. 1(4): 221-5
    4) Casscells SW. Editor’s Comment: Memories of the Early Days of Arthroscopy. Arthroscopy 1986. 2(4): 208
    5) Watanabe M. Memories of the Early Days of Arthroscopy. Arthroscopy 1986. 2(4): 209-14
    6) Jackson RW. Memories of the Early Days of Arthroscopy: 1965-975. The Formative Years. Arthroscopy 1987. 3(1): 1-3
    7) Casscells SW. The Early Days of Arthroscopy in the United States. Arthroscopy 1987. 3(2): 71-3
    8) Joyce JJ. History of the Arthroscopy Association of North America. Part I: Its Origin and Growth. Arthroscopy 1987. 3(4):265-8
    9) Joyce JJ. History of the Arthroscopy Association of North America, Its Origin and Growth: Part II. Arthroscopy 1988. 4(1): 1-4


    10) Directory 1989-1991 of the IAA & ISK
    11) Directory 1991-1993 of the IAA
    12) Directory 1991-1993 of the ISK
    13) Directory 1993-1995 of the IAA & ISK
    14) Final Program of the ISAKOS. First Biennial Congress. May 11-16, 1997. Buenos Aires, Argentina