Definitions, Clinical Diagnosis and Interventions For Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome
Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a musculoskeletal condition presenting with anterior knee pain or retropatellar pain. It is a common amongst athletes and non-athletes with incidence estimates of 60% within the athletic population and 25% with in general population. Exercise therapy is considered one of the most physiotherapy interventions of PFPS.
to investigate the definitions, causes, clinical assessment and treatment options for patients with PFPS.
Thematic analysis and Nvivo software analysis of qualitative data has been used following open end qualitative surveys to 90 physiotherapists and clinicians across the world utilized Survey Monkey website
Subject: 90 participants undertook the survey, Female (58%), Male (42%). In terms of the highest degree earned by clinicians, 32 participants had Bachelor’s degrees (35.55%), 31 clinicians had a Masters (34.44%) and 19 had PhD (21.11%). Eight participants (8.88%) had other degree.
in terms of causes of Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), 29% of participants indicated that biomechanics is the primary cause while 24% stated that muscle imbalance and weakness of muscle. 20% presented that poor control of muscles and joints were the third causes. Other causes have been presented by participants such as patellar mal-alignment (19%), overuse (17%); overload and patella injury (14%). For the assessment of patellofemoral pain syndrome, pain whether localized, on testing or on flexion knee position was indicated by 32% of participants. 20% of participants indicated that squat testing was appropriate for PFPS assessment. In terms of treatments and interventions of PFPS, 54% of participants indicated that exercise therapy is effective for PFPS treatment but strengthening exercise is more effective than stretching exercise while 48% stated for strengthening exercise and 13% indicated for stretching exercise. 30% of subjects suggested taping therapy, 21% posit control of muscle and movement, 13% believe that education and re-education of movement and gait is key.
Patellofemoral pain is a “multifactorial” syndrome in terms of causes. From the results, biomechanical factors, overload and overuse are the most common causes of PFPS. Pain localized on testing especially in knee flexion position, excluded differential diagnoses and knee squat test are the most appropriate assessment for PFPS. Exercises therapy especially strength exercise and tapping are the most common intervention. Although a massive data have been collected but further in depth semi-structure interviews are needed with suitably physiotherapists/researchers who are interested in patellofemoral pain syndrome to obtain more specify and accurate data.