The aim of the study was to evaluate the functional and radiological outcome following derotational distal femoral osteotomy (D-DFO) in patients with high-grade patellofemoral instability (PFI) and an associated increased femoral antetorsion (FA). It was hypothesized that D-DFO would lead to a good functional and radiological outcome, and that both torsional and coronal malalignment could be normalized.
Patients that underwent D-DFO between 06/2011 and 12/2018 for high-grade PFI with an increased FA (>20°) were included. Patient-reported outcome measures (Visual Analog Scale [VAS] for pain, Kujala score, Lysholm score, International Knee Documentation Committee subjective knee form [IKDC], Tegner Activity Scale [TAS]) were evaluated pre- and minimum 24 months postoperatively. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lower extremity and weight-bearing whole-leg anteroposterior radiographs were conducted pre- and postoperatively. The change in FA, coronal limb alignment and PROMs were tested for statistical significance.
In total, 27 patients (30 knees), were included. The D-DFO aimed to only correct FA (Group 1) or to additionally perform a varization (Group 2) in 14 cases each. In the remaining two cases, double-level osteotomies were performed to correct additional tibial deformities. In 25 cases (83.3%), concomitant procedures also addressing patellofemoral instability were performed. At follow-up (38.0 months [25-75% interquartile range 31.8-52.5 months]), a significant reduction in pain (VAS for pain: 2.0 [1.0-5.0] vs. 0 [0-1.0], p < 0.05), significant improvement in knee function (Kujala score: 55.6 ± 13.6 vs. 80.3 ± 16.7, p < 0.05; Lysholm score: 58.6 ± SD 17.4 vs. 79.5 ± 16.6, p < 0.05; IKDC: 54.6 ± 18.7 vs. 74.1 ± 15.0, p < 0.05), and an increase in sporting activity (TAS: 3.0 [3.0-4.0] vs. 4.0 [3.0-5.0], p = n.s.) were reported. Femoral antetorsion was significantly reduced (28.2 ± 6.4° vs. 13.6 ± 5.2°, p < 0.05). A significant varization was observed in Group 2 (2.4 ± 1.2° valgus vs. 0.3 ± 2.4° valgus; p < 0.05). In one case, patellar redislocation occurred 70 months postoperatively.
In patients with PFI and an associated increased FA, D-DFO achieved a significant reduction in pain, an improvement of subjective knee function, as well as an adequate correction of torsional and coronal alignment.