The aim of this study was to compare the use of constrained implants and outcomes among patients undergoing TKA with a history of prior knee ligament reconstruction (PKLR) to a matched cohort of patients undergoing TKA with no history of PKLR.
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and multiligament knee (MLK) injuries increase the risk of development of knee osteoarthritis and eventual need for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). There is limited data regarding implant use and outcomes in these patients. The aim of this study was to compare the use of constrained implants and outcomes among patients undergoing TKA with a history of prior knee ligament reconstruction (PKLR) to a matched cohort of patients undergoing TKA with no history of PKLR.
All patients with history of ACL or MLK reconstruction who underwent TKA between 2007-2018 were identified in a single institution registry. A matched cohort was identified based on patient age, body mass index (BMI), sex, and year of surgery. The primary outcome measure was utilization of constrained implants. Secondary outcomes included rates of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), infection, postoperative transfusion, postoperative knee range of motion (ROM), revision surgery, and patient reported outcomes (Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for joint replacement (KOOS, JR).
There were 223 patients who met inclusion criteria (188 patients with prior ACL reconstruction, 35 patients with prior MLK reconstruction). Mean age at the time of TKA was 57.2 years (range 31-88). Mean BMI was 29.7 (range 19.5-55.7). Patients with PKLR had a lower Charleston Comorbidity Index compared to controls (p<0.0001). There was a significantly higher use of constrained implants among patients with PKLR (34.1%) compared to the control group (17.9%) (p<0.001). Subgroup analysis showed a higher use of constrained implants among patients with prior MLK reconstruction (60.0%) compared to ACL reconstruction (29.3%) (p<0.001). Removal of hardware at the time of TKA was performed in 69.8% of patients with PKLR. Mean operative time (p<0.001) and tourniquet time (p<0.001) were longer in patients with PKLR compared to controls. There were no significant differences in rates of DVT, PE, infection, transfusion, postoperative knee ROM, or need for revision surgery (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in preoperative or postoperative KOOS, JR scores between groups (p>0.05).
Results of this study suggest a history of PKLR results in an increased utilization of constrained implants but no difference in post-operative knee ROM, patient reported outcomes, or incidence of revision surgery.